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ⓘ Concepts




                                               

Concept

Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind, in speech, or in thought. They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition. As such, concepts are studied by several disciplines, such as linguistics, psychology, and philosophy, and these disciplines are interested in the logical and psychological structure of concepts, and how they are put together to form thoughts and sentences. The study of concepts has served as an important flagship of an emerging interdisciplinary ...

                                               

Abstract and concrete

Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether the object that a term describes has physical referents. Abstract objects have no physical referents, whereas concrete objects do. They are most commonly used in philosophy and semantics. Abstract objects are sometimes called abstracta and concrete objects are sometimes called concreta. An abstract object is an object that does not exist at any particular time or place, but rather exists as a type of thing - i.e., an idea, or abstraction. The term abstract object is said to have been coined by Willard Van Orman Quine. The study ...

                                               

Afro-pessimism

Afro-pessimism is a field of thought which takes seriously the historical reality that blackness is politically and ontologically coterminous with slaveness. According to the 2018 Oxford Bibliography entry on Afro-pessimism written by Patrice Douglass, Selamawit D. Terrefe, and Frank B. Wilderson III, afro-pessimism can be understood as" a lens of interpretation that accounts for civil society’s dependence on anti-black violence - a regime of violence that positions black people as internal enemies of civil society.” This violence, they argue," cannot be analogized with the regimes of viol ...

                                               

Category (Kant)

In Kants philosophy, a category is a pure concept of the understanding. A Kantian category is a characteristic of the appearance of any object in general, before it has been experienced. Kant wrote that "They are concepts of an object in general…." Kant also wrote that, "…pure cоncepts of the undеrstanding which apply to objects of intuition in general…." Such a category is not a classificatory division, as the word is commonly used. It is, instead, the condition of the possibility of objects in general, that is, objects as such, any and all objects, not specific objects in particular.

                                               

Category of being

In ontology, the different kinds or ways of being are called categories of being ; or simply categories. To investigate the categories of being is to determine the most fundamental and the broadest classes of entities. A distinction between such categories, in making the categories or applying them, is called an ontological distinction.

                                               

Comply or explain

Comply or explain is a regulatory approach used in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and other countries in the field of corporate governance and financial supervision. Rather than setting out binding laws, government regulators set out a code, which listed companies may either comply with, or if they do not comply, explain publicly why they do not. The UK Corporate Governance Code, the German Corporate Governance Code and the Dutch Corporate Governance Code Tabaksblat use this approach in setting minimum standards for companies in their audit committees, remuneration committees ...

                                               

Concept map

A concept map or conceptual diagram is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts. It is a graphical tool that instructional designers, engineers, technical writers, and others use to organize and structure knowledge. A concept map typically represents ideas and information as boxes or circles, which it connects with labeled arrows in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. The relationship between concepts can be articulated in linking phrases such as "causes", "requires", or "contributes to". The technique for visualizing these relationships among different conc ...

                                               

Concept-driven strategy

A concept-driven strategy is a process for formulating strategy that draws on the explanation of how humans inquire provided by linguistic pragmatic philosophy. This argues that thinking starts by selecting a set of concepts gained from our past experiences. These are used to reflect on whatever happens, or is done, in the future. Concept-driven strategy therefore starts from agreeing and enacting a set of strategic concepts organizing principles that "works best" for an organisation. For example, a hospital might set its strategy as intending to be Caring, World Class, Local, Evidence Bas ...

                                               

Conceptual combination

Conceptual combination is a fundamental cognitive process by which two or more existing basic concepts are mentally synthesized to generate a composite, higher-order concept. The products of this process are sometimes referred to as complex concepts." Combining concepts allows individuals to use a finite number of concepts which they already understand to construct a potentially limitless quantity of new, related concepts. It is an essential component of many abilities, such as perception, language, synthetic reasoning, creative thought and abstraction. Conceptual combination is an importa ...

                                               

Conceptual necessity

Conceptual necessity is a property of the certainty with which a state of affairs, as presented by a certain description, occurs: it occurs by conceptual necessity if and only if it occurs just by virtue of the meaning of the description. If someone is a bachelor, for instance, then he is bound to be unmarried by conceptual necessity, because the meaning of the word "bachelor" determines that he is. Alternatively, there is metaphysical necessity, which is a certainty determined, not by the meaning of a description, but instead by facts in the world described. Historically, Baruch Spinoza w ...

                                               

Conceptual schema

A conceptual schema is a high-level description of a businesss informational needs. It typically includes only the main concepts and the main relationships among them. Typically this is a first-cut model, with insufficient detail to build an actual database. This level describes the structure of the whole database for a group of users. The conceptual model is also known as the data model that can be used to describe the conceptual schema when a database system is implemented. It hides the internal details of physical storage and targets on describing entities, datatype, relationships and c ...

                                               

Construction of Concept Map

Concept is usually perceived as a regularity in events or objects, or in their records. While constructing a concept map, it is essential to keep in mind that the concept be built with reference to a focus question. Hence, initially, the focus question one seeks to answer is carefully chosen, as learners usually tend to deviate from this question relating only to domains, and thus fail to answer the question. With the selected domain and the focus question, the next step is to identify the key concepts which apply to this domain. About 15 to 25 concepts are sufficient; they are usually ord ...

                                               

Definitionism

Definitionism is the school of thought in which it is believed that a proper explanation of a theory consists of all the concepts used by that theory being well-defined. This approach has been criticized for its dismissal of the importance of ostensive definitions.

                                               

Fuzzy concept

A fuzzy concept is a concept of which the boundaries of application can vary considerably according to context or conditions, instead of being fixed once and for all. This means the concept is vague in some way, lacking a fixed, precise meaning, without however being unclear or meaningless altogether. It has a definite meaning, which can be made more precise only through further elaboration and specification - including a closer definition of the context in which the concept is used. The study of the characteristics of fuzzy concepts and fuzzy language is called fuzzy semantics. The invers ...

                                               

Great Conversation

The Great Conversation is the ongoing process of writers and thinkers referencing, building on, and refining the work of their predecessors. This process is characterized by writers in the Western canon making comparisons and allusions to the works of earlier writers. As such it is a name used in the promotion of the Great Books of the Western World published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. in 1952. It is also the title of the first volume of the first edition of this set of books, written by Robert Maynard Hutchins, and an accessory volume to the second edition, written by Mortimer J. Adl ...

                                               

Idea

In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object. Ideas can also be abstract concepts that do not present as mental images. Many philosophers have considered ideas to be a fundamental ontological category of being. The capacity to create and understand the meaning of ideas is considered to be an essential and defining feature of human beings. In a popular sense, an idea arises in a reflexive, spontaneous manner, even without thinking or serious reflection, for example, when we talk about the idea of a person or a place. A new or original idea can ofte ...

                                               

Innatism

Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed. It asserts that not all knowledge is gained from experience and the senses. Plato and Descartes are prominent philosophers in the development of innatism and the notion that the mind is already born with ideas, knowledge and beliefs. Both philosophers emphasize that experiences are the key to unlocking this knowledge but not the source of the knowledge itself. Essentially ...

                                               

Intuition

Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without recourse to conscious reasoning. Different writers give the word "intuition" a great variety of different meanings, ranging from direct access to unconscious knowledge, unconscious cognition, inner sensing, inner insight to unconscious pattern-recognition and the ability to understand something instinctively, without the need for conscious reasoning. The word intuition comes from the Latin verb intueri translated as "consider" or from the late middle English word intuit, "to contemplate".

                                               

Jurisprudence of concepts

The jurisprudence of concepts was the first sub-school of legal positivism, according to which, the written law must reflect concepts, when interpreted. Its main representatives were Ihering, Savigny and Puchta. This school was, thus, the preceding trigger of the idea that law comes from a dogmatic source, imposition from man over man and not a natural consequence of other sciences or of metaphysical faith. Among the main characters of the jurisprudence of concepts are: search for justifying specific norm with basis from more generic ones. systemisation formalism, search of rights in writt ...

                                               

Knowledge arena

A knowledge arena is a virtual space where individuals can manipulate concepts and relationships to form a concept map. Individuals using a computer with appropriate software can represent concepts and the relationships between concepts in a node-relationship-node formalism. The process of thinking about the concepts and making associations between them has been called "off-loading" by McAleese. The concept map is a form of a semantic network or semantic graph. It is formally based on graph theory. In the concept map, concepts are represented by nodes. The relationship between nodes are re ...

                                               

Mental image

A mental image or mental picture is an experience that, on most occasions, significantly resembles the experience of perceiving some object, event, or scene, but occurs when the relevant object, event, or scene is not actually present to the senses. There are sometimes episodes, particularly on falling asleep and waking up, when the mental imagery, being of a rapid, phantasmagoric and involuntary character, defies perception, presenting a kaleidoscopic field, in which no distinct object can be discerned. Mental imagery can sometimes produce the same effects as would be produced by the beha ...

                                               

Conceptual model

A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents. It is also a set of concepts. Some models are physical objects; for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like the object it represents. The term conceptual model may be used to refer to models which are formed after a conceptualization or generalization process. Conceptual models are often abstractions of things in the real world whether physical or social. Semantic studies are rel ...

                                               

Nonsense

Nonsense is a communication, via speech, writing, or any other symbolic system, that lacks any coherent meaning. Sometimes in ordinary usage, nonsense is synonymous with absurdity or the ridiculous. Many poets, novelists and songwriters have used nonsense in their works, often creating entire works using it for reasons ranging from pure comic amusement or satire, to illustrating a point about language or reasoning. In the philosophy of language and philosophy of science, nonsense is distinguished from sense or meaningfulness, and attempts have been made to come up with a coherent and consi ...

                                               

Notion (philosophy)

A notion in philosophy is a reflection in the mind of real objects and phenomena in their essential features and relations. Notions are usually described in terms of scope and content. This is because notions are often created in response to empirical observations of covarying trends among variables. Notion is the common translation for Begriff as used by Hegel in his Science of Logic 1816.

                                               

Object of the mind

An object of the mind is an object that exists in the imagination, but which, in the real world, can only be represented or modeled. Some such objects are abstractions, literary concepts, or fictional scenarios. Closely related are intentional objects, which are what thoughts and feelings are about, even if they are not about anything real such as thoughts about unicorns, or feelings of apprehension about a dental appointment which is subsequently cancelled. However, intentional objects may coincide with real objects as in thoughts about horses, or a feeling of regret about a missed appoin ...

                                               

Organizing principle

An organizing principle is a core assumption from which everything else by proximity can derive a classification or a value. It is like a central reference point that allows all other objects to be located, often used in a conceptual framework. Having an organizing principle might help one simplify and get a handle on a particularly complicated domain or phenomenon. On the other hand, it might create a deceptive prism that colors ones judgment.

                                               

Mind in eastern philosophy

The study of the mind in Eastern philosophy has parallels to the Western study of the Philosophy of mind as a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind. Dualism and monism are the two central schools of thought on the mind–body problem in the Western tradition, although nuanced views have arisen that do not fit one or the other category neatly. Dualism is found in both Eastern and Western traditions but its entry into Western philosophy was thanks to Rene Descartes in the 17th century. This article on mind in eastern philosophy deals with this subject from the standpoint of ...

                                               

Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body. The mind–body problem is a paradigm issue in philosophy of mind, although other issues are addressed, such as the hard problem of consciousness, and the nature of particular mental states. Aspects of the mind that are studied include mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, the ontology of the mind, the nature of thought, and the relationship of the mind to the body. Dualism and monism are the two central schools of thought on the mind– ...

                                               

Polar concept argument

A polar concept argument is a type of argument that posits the understanding of one concept, from the mere understanding of its polar opposite. A well-known instance of a polar concept argument is Gilbert Ryles argument against scepticism. According to Anthony Graylings characterisation, Ryles argument can be stated as follows: There cannot be counterfeit coins. unless there are genuine ones, nor crooked paths unless there are straight paths, nor tall men unless there are short men. According to Ryles polar concept argument, counterfeit and genuine coins come in pairs, and one cannot conce ...

                                               

Principle

A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule that has to be or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users as the essential characteristics of the system, or reflecting systems designed purpose, and the effective operation or use of which would be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored. A system may be explicitly based on ...

                                               

Progress

Progress is the movement towards a refined, improved, or otherwise desired state. In the context of progressivism, it refers to the proposition that advancements in technology, science, and social organization have resulted, and by extension will continue to result, in an improved human condition; the latter may happen as a result of direct human action, as in social enterprise or through activism, or as a natural part of sociocultural evolution. The concept of progress was introduced in the early 19th-century social theories, especially social evolution as described by Auguste Comte and H ...

                                               

Symbol

A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters ...

                                               

Terminology model

A terminology model is a refinement of a concept system. Within a terminology model the concepts of a specific problem or subject area are defined by subject matter experts in terms of concept definitions and definitions of subordinated concepts or characteristics. Besides object types, the terminology model allows defining hierarchical classifications, definitions for object type and property behavior and definition of casual relations. The terminology model is a means for subject matter experts to express their knowledge about the subject in subject specific terms. Since the terminology ...

                                               

Theory of forms

The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is a philosophical theory, concept, or world-view, attributed to Plato, that the physical world is not as real or true as timeless, absolute, unchangeable ideas. According to this theory, ideas in this sense, often capitalized and translated as "Ideas" or "Forms", are the non-physical essences of all things, of which objects and matter in the physical world are merely imitations. Plato speaks of these entities only through the characters of his dialogues who sometimes suggest that these Forms are the only objects of study that can provide knowledge. T ...

                                               

Thought

Thought encompasses an "aim-oriented flow of ideas and associations that can lead to a reality-oriented conclusion". Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is still no consensus as to how it is adequately defined or understood. Because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins and its effects has been a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines including philosophy, linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, biology, sociology and cognitive science. Thinking allows ...

                                     

ⓘ Concepts

  • The most commonly used solution concepts are equilibrium concepts most famously Nash equilibrium. Many solution concepts for many games, will result in
  • Thick concepts thus seem to occupy a middle position between thin descriptive concepts and thin evaluative concepts Descriptive concepts such as
  • 35 Girls 5 Concepts is an EP by contestants of the South Korean survival show Produce 101. It was released online as a digital album on March 19, 2016
  • The jurisprudence of concepts was the first sub - school of legal positivism, according to which, the written law must reflect concepts when interpreted.
  • This is a list of waste management concepts Best practicable environmental option Extended producer responsibility Muda Japanese term Pay as you throw
  • Concepts Complex Concepts Constructs such as a schema and a script are examples of complex concepts A schema is an organization of smaller concepts
  • Such a definition is called a species concept there are at least 26 recognized species concepts A species concept that works well for sexually reproducing
  • the dual inclusion of intents. An order on the concepts is defined as follows: for any two concepts A1, B1 and A2, B2 of K, we say that A1, B1
  • Team and Concepts TnC is a Hong Kong - based company founded by David K. F. Lee and others in 2003. It is known as the provider of the Web 2.0 online spreadsheet
  • Soaring Concepts Inc. is an American aircraft manufacturer founded by Galen Geigley and based in Sturgis, Michigan. The company specializes in the design

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